V Subrahmanian, Tuesday, November 1, 2016 11:11 pm

Sūtasamhitā Chāndogyopaniṣat – Part 17

Part 17

The deriving of the meaning of the Mahāvākya is being discussed.

Verse 127

शिव एवास्ति नैवान्यदिति यो निश्चयः स्थिरः ।

सदा स एव सिद्धान्तः पूर्वपक्षास्तथा परे ॥ १२७॥

शिवः Śiva  एव alone अस्ति is न not एव ever अन्यत् any else इति thus  यः that निश्चयः conviction स्थिरः firm सदा forever सः that एव alone सिद्धान्तः conclusion पूर्वपक्षाः objections तथा thus परे other views

The foregoing discussion is on the reiteration of the truth that is the Advaitic Brahman. This reiteration, for example, found in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6th Chapter on the teaching of the ‘Tat tvam asi’ nine times is called ‘abhyāsa’ and is one of the six tātparya liṅga-s, indicatory marks that help determine the purport of the teaching. From such a reiteration it is concluded that the purport of the Śruti is the identity of the Non-dual Brahman and the (jīva) Ātman.  ‘Śiva’ the Pure Consciousness, alone exists and nothing else. In all the Upaniṣads, the final purport is this Infinite Existence that is taught and whatever else that is discussed is only the pūrvapakṣa-s, objections, that are raised in order to establish the Non-dual Truth on firm footing.   

Verse 128

अयमेव हि वेदार्थो नापरः परमास्तिकाः ।

गृह्णामि परशुं तप्तं सत्यमेव न संशयः ॥ १२८

अयम् this एव alone हि indeed वेदार्थः purport of the Veda न not अपरः any other परमास्तिकाः Foremost Aspirants! गृह्णामि I grasp परशुं axe  तप्तं heated सत्यम् truth एव alone न no संशयः doubt

Verse 129

अयमेव हि सत्यार्थो नापरः परमास्तिकाः ।

विश्वासार्थं शिवं स्पृष्ट्वा त्रिर्वः शपथयाम्यहम् ॥ १२९॥

अयम् this एव alone हि  verily सत्यार्थः true purport न not अपरः any other परमास्तिकाः O Supreme aspirants! विश्वासार्थं for belief शिवं Śiva स्पृष्ट्वा touched त्रिः three वः to you शपथयामि proclaim अहम् I

Verse 130

अयमेव हि वेदार्थो नापरः परमास्तिकाः ।

अन्यथा चेत्सुराः सत्यं मूर्धा मेऽत्र पतिष्यति ॥ १३०॥

अयम्  this एव alone हि indeed वेदार्थः purport of Veda न not  अपरः any other परमास्तिकाः O Supreme Aspirants!! अन्यथा otherwise चेत् if सुराः O Gods! सत्यं for sure मूर्धा head मे mine अत्र here पतिष्यति will fall

The Knower of Brahman wants to proclaim that he too, just as the Veda teaching the identity of the Brahman-Ātman as the Sole Truth, without anything second, in his own right, is an authority for the Truth that is verily his direct experience. So he says: ‘I shall, with no hesitation, grasp the heated axe of Truth and shall come out unscathed as the winner.’ The reference is to the concluding instance, ninth, of the teaching of ‘Tat tvam asi’ occurring in the Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6.16:

"My dear, they (i.e. the police) bring a man whom they have seized by the hand and say: ‘He has taken something, he has committed a theft.’ When he denies it, they say: ‘Heat the axe for him.’ If he has committed the theft but denies it, then he  makes himself a liar. Being false-minded, he covers himself  with falsehood, grasps the heated axe and is burnt. Then he is killed.  

2.   "But if he did not commit the theft, then he makes himself what he really is. Being true-minded, he covers himself with truth,  grasps the heated axe and is not burnt. He is released.  

3.   "As that truthful man is not burnt so also one who has known  Sat is not born again. Thus in That (Sat) all that exists has its self. That is the True. That is the Self. That thou art, Śvetaketu." 

Verse 131

अयमेव हि सत्यार्थो नापरः परमास्तिकाः ।

अत्रैव सन्निधिं देवो विश्वासार्थं करिष्यति ॥ १३१॥

अयम् this एव alone हि  verily सत्यार्थः true purport न not अपरः any other परमास्तिकाः O Supreme Aspirants! अत्र here एव alone सन्निधिं proximate देवः Lord  विश्वासार्थं for faith करिष्यति will do

It is not just that I, Brahmā, that am declaring the Truth thus, but even the Lord Śiva Himself, out of compassion to his devotees, will make his presence felt and will generate faith in you in the words I have uttered. 

Verse 132

सूत उवाच –

एवमुक्त्वा तु भगवान्ब्रह्मा सर्वहिते रतः ।

प्रणम्य दण्डवद्भूमौ भक्त्या परवशोऽभवत् ॥ १३२॥

सूत उवाच – Sūta said – एवम् thus  उक्त्वा having said तु however भगवान् Lord ब्रह्मा Brahmā सर्वहिते रतः intent on the universal welfare प्रणम्य bowed दण्डवत् like a stick भूमौ on ground भक्त्या with devotion परवशः carried away अभवत्  became    

Verse 133

अस्मिन्नवसरे श्रीमाञ्शङ्करः शशिशेखरः ।

नीलकण्ठो विरूपाक्षः साम्बः साक्षाद्घृणानिधिः ॥ १३३॥

अस्मिन् in that अवसरे juncture श्रीमान् the Auspicious शङ्करः benefactor शशिशेखरः moon-crested नीलकण्ठः blue-throated विरूपाक्षः uneven-eyed साम्बः with the Mother Pārvatī साक्षात् none other than घृणानिधिः ocean of compassion [All epithets of Śiva]

Verses 134-139

ब्रह्मविष्णुमहेशाद्यैरुपास्यो गुणमूर्तिभिः ।

आविर्बभूव सर्वज्ञस्तत्रैव सुरसन्निधौ ॥ १३४॥

ब्रह्मविष्णुमहेशाद्यैः by Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Maheśā, etc.  उपास्यः meditated गुणमूर्तिभिः endowed with guṇa-s आविर्बभूव sprang up सर्वज्ञः omniscient तत्र there एव itself सुरसन्निधौ in the presence of gods

आसनं विमलं दिव्यं शिवार्हं हैममद्भुतम् ।

आगतं तत्र भगवानास्ते तस्मिन्यथासुखम् ॥ १३५॥

आसनं seat विमलं impeccable दिव्यं divine शिवार्हं fit for Śiva हैमम् golden अद्भुतम् wonderful आगतं brought तत्र there भगवान् Lord  आस्ते sits तस्मिन्  on it यथासुखम् comfortably

विष्णुर्विश्वजगत्कर्ता शिवस्यामिततेजसः ।

बुद्ध्वोद्योगं महाप्रीतस्तत्र सन्निहितोऽभवत् ॥ १३६॥

विष्णुः Viṣṇu  विश्वजगत्कर्ता the creator of the entire world शिवस्य Śiva’s अमिततेजसः immensely splendrous बुध्द्वा known उद्योगं agenda महाप्रीतः greatly pleased तत्र there सन्निहितः closely अभवत् present  

पुष्पवृष्टिरभवत्पुनः पुनः

     शब्दितं च मुनिभिः सनातनैः ।

शुद्धवेदवचनैः सुशोभनै-

     र्भक्तिमद्भिरपि पूजनं कृतम् ॥ १३७॥

पुष्पवृष्टिः rain of flowers अभवत् happened पुनः पुनः repeatedly शब्दितं sounded च too मुनिभिः by sages सनातनैः ancient शुद्धवेदवचनैः pure Vedic passages सुशोभनैः enchanting भक्तिमद्भिः full of devotion  अपि too पूजनं worship कृतम् performed

उच्चमन्दमृदुतीव्रकाहलैः

     शब्दितं च पटहादिभिस्तथा ।

तालमानकुशलैस्तथा परै-

     र्भेरिकादिकुशलैः सुघोषितम् ॥ १३८॥

उच्चमन्दमृदुतीव्रकाहलैः high, low, soft, intense drums शब्दितं sounded च also पटहादिभिः  kettle drums etc. तथा also तालमानकुशलैः experts in cymbal  तथा also परैः others भेरिकादिकुशलैः experts in kettle-drum etc. सुघोषितम् well sounded

अप्सरोभिरपि नर्तनं कृतं

     गायनैश्च सहितैर्महत्तरैः ।

गीतमाशुकविभिश्च कीर्तितं

     स्थानमीशदृशिगोचरं द्विजाः ॥ १३९॥

अप्सरोभिः by nymphs अपि too नर्तनं dance कृतं performed गायनैः singers च too सहितैः along with महत्तरैः superior  गीतम् sung आशुकविभिः extempore composers च too कीर्तितं praised स्थानम् arena ईशदृशिगोचरं where Śiva appeared द्विजाः O Brāhmaṇa-s

The above bunch of verses brings out the idea of Trimūrti-aikya in bold relief. The three mūrti-s, Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Maheśa represent the three guṇa-s, rajas, sattva and tamas, that are inevitable for the cosmic functions of creation, sustenance and destruction. In some texts, Upaniṣad-s and purāṇa-s, the Transcendental Brahman above the three forms is named Rudra and in some others it is Viṣṇu.  In any case, the three forms are not to be differentiated from each other on any other basis than the three guṇa-s. No one guṇa can individually perform all the three functions and hence the need for all the guṇa-s. There is no superior-inferior distinction across the three guṇa-s.

The other point the above verses bring forth is that when the Transcendental Śiva arrived on that scene, there was all-round expression of joy in the form of dance, songs and hymns.  

The following verses speak of some more ways in which those present there expressed their joy:

Verses 140-143

विस्मिताश्च मुनयश्च केचन

     श्रद्धयैव शिरसा च नर्तिताः ।

मुष्टियुद्धमपि कुर्युरास्तिकाः

     श्रद्धयैव परया च केचन ॥ १४०॥

मस्तकेन मनुजानतिप्रिया-

     न्पृष्ठतश्च चरणेन पाणिना ।

दण्डरज्जुशिबिकादिभिस्तथा

     केचिदश्वनिकरैर्वहन्ति च ॥ १४१॥

बन्धनं च निगडैश्च गर्विता

     मोचनं च मनुजानतिप्रियान् ।

कुर्युरस्त्रनिकरैश्च केचन

     च्छेदनं च विवशाश्च केचन ॥ १४२॥

अन्योन्यमालिङ्गनमाचरन्ति

     प्रियेण केचिन्मुनयश्च केचित् ।

धावन्ति वेगेन पटं विसृज्य

     प्रियेण चान्यानपि ताडयन्ति ॥ १४३॥  

Verse 144

विलोक्य सर्वं शिवया शिवोऽपि

     प्रहृष्टचित्तस्तु निवार्य सर्वान् ।

हरिं विरञ्चिं च सुरानशेषा-

     नतिप्रियेणैव निरीक्ष्य विप्राः ॥ १४४॥

विलोक्य glanced सर्वं all शिवया with Pārvatī शिवः अपि Śiva too प्रहृष्टचित्तः pleased mind तु indeed निवार्य warding off सर्वान् all हरिं Hari विरञ्चिं Brahmā च and सुरान् gods  अशेषान् completely अतिप्रियेण with immense affection एव indeed निरीक्ष्य looking at them विप्राः  O Brāhmaṇa-s

Verse 145

उवाच सत्यं करुणानिधानः

     श्रुतिप्रमाणैकसुनिश्चितार्थः ।

हिताय लोकस्य सुरासुराद्यैः

     प्रपूजनीयश्च सदा महेशः ॥ १४५॥

उवाच uttered सत्यं Truth करुणानिधानः abode of compassion श्रुतिप्रमाणैकसुनिश्चितार्थः the conclusion drawn from the sole Vedic authority हिताय welfare लोकस्य of the world सुरासुराद्यैः by gods, demons, etc. प्रपूजनीयः worthy of ardent worship च too सदा always महेशः Śiva

The infinitely compassionate Lord Śiva proclaimed the Truth that is distilled from the only authority on the subject, the Veda, for the ultimate wellbeing of the entire world. Hence this Divine Being, Maheśa, is worthy of ardent worship by all beings of the world, the gods, the demons and others. There cannot be a greater gift conferred on man than the statement of and the means to this Truth that is everyone’s true nature. Knowing this truth as one’s very nature, there ceases to be the transmigratory existence giving place to the Eternal Existence.

Verse 146

अहं हि सर्वं न च किञ्चिदन्य-

     न्निरूपणायामनिरूपणायाम् ।

इयं हि वेदस्य परा हि निष्ठा

     ममानुभूतिश्च न संशयश्च ॥ १४६

अहं I am हि in deed सर्वं All न not च ever किञ्चित् any अन्यत् other निरूपणायाम् when determined अनिरूपणायाम् undetermined इयं this हि verily is वेदस्य of veda परा supreme हि indeed  निष्ठा purport मम My अनुभूतिः Experience च too न no संशयः doubt च as well

What was taught elaborately by Brahmā in the foregoing on the basis of the Chāndogya Upaniṣadic statement that ‘All this has the Sat, Existence, for its Self. That alone is the Truth. That is the Ātman; you are That, O Śvetaketu’ is now validated by the Lord Śiva, Brahman, Himself by proclaiming His Self-of-All nature.

(Part 18…coming soon)  

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