V Subrahmanian, Monday, November 9, 2015 5:39 am

The Sūtasamhitā – Part 6

Chāndogya Upaniṣat
Part 6

Verse 40

अंकुरोत्पादिका शक्तिः सद्रूपस्यैव दृश्यते ।
खलु बीजस्य सर्वत्र नासतस्तददर्शनात् ॥ ४०॥

अंकुरोत्पादिका sprouting शक्तिः power सद्रूपस्य of an existent एव alone दृश्यते seen खलु indeed बीजस्य of the seed सर्वत्र everywhere न not असतः of non-existent (seed) तत् that अदर्शनात् hence not seen

From observing the cause-effect, that is, concordance and discordance rule, we conclude that only when a seed is existent does the sprouting power have a locus. In other words, an existent object alone can be held to possess any power to bring about any effect. Therefore, since the proposition made by the objector that a non-existent object can bring forth an effect contradicts what is seen in the world. Any attribute or power can be spoken of only in an object that exists. Non-existence does not qualify for any vyavahāra.

Verse 41

साऽपि शक्तिः सती किं वाऽसती सदसती तु वा ।
सती चेत्सा सती शक्तिः कथं वन्ध्यासुताश्रया ।
आश्रयत्वं सतो दृष्टं खलु लोके न चासतः ॥ ४१॥

सा that अपि too शक्तिः power सती is existent किं whether वा or असती non-existent सदसती तु वा or both सती चेत् if existent सा that सती existent शक्तिः power कथं how वन्ध्यासुताश्रया dependent on the barren-woman’s son? आश्रयत्वं dependence सतः of existence दृष्टं seen खलु indeed लोके in the world न not च indeed असतः of non-existence

Is the śakti, power, of any object such as a seed, to bring forth any effect such as the sprout, of the nature of (1) sat, existent, or (2) asat, non-existent, or (3) both existent and non-existent?

(1) If it is existent, how can it be in the locus that is non-existent, asat, such as a vandhyā-putra (barren woman’s son)? A vandhyā-putra, verily non-existent, cannot be said to be endowed with any power, much less the power to procreate. Any power existent in a non-existent thing is neither seen anywhere in the world nor it is reasonable. A power such as this is seen in an existent object such as a seed and never in a non-existent thing like the human-horn. An object ‘A’, if it is a locus of something else, ‘B’, has to be an existent one only and never an asat. Therefore it is impossible to propose that asat possesses a power.

Verse 42

साऽसती चेत्कथं शक्तिः कार्यनिर्वाहिकाऽसती ॥ ४२॥

सा that असती non-existent चेत् if कथं how शक्तिः power कार्यनिर्वाहिका efficient असती non-existent

The alternative (2) above is now considered and rejected. If the power of an asat object is said to be asat, non-existent, too, then even this power (which is asat) is impossible to generate anything since it is itself non-existent, akin to a vandhyā-putra (barren woman’s son). In the previous case (1) the power was proposed to be of an existent nature. The defect, in such a case, was pointed out that an asat object cannot possess any power. Now, in (2), it is shown that a power, if admitted to be of a non-existent nature, it goes without saying that such a non-existent power cannot bring forth anything as effect.

Verse 43

वन्ध्यापुत्रः स्वयं नैव कार्यनिर्वाहकः खलु ।
निर्वाहकत्वधर्मश्च सत एव हि दृश्यते ॥ ४३॥

वन्ध्यापुत्रः barren-woman’s son स्वयं himself न not एव ever कार्यनिर्वाहकः efficient खलु indeed निर्वाहकत्वधर्मः ability to be efficient च too सतः of existent एव alone हि indeed दृश्यते seen

The case (2) stated earlier is further explained. The power, if non-existent, is akin to a vandhyā putra. Such a one is never an initiator of any action. The ability to bring about anything exists only in an existent object and never in an asat. Thus, even if the śakti, power, is admitted to be asat, it cannot bring about any change in the locus of that (non-existent) power. Such a locus will continue to remain incapable of producing any effect. This is stated over and above the earlier refutation that such a locus cannot indeed exist.

The rule that emerges from the above study is: (A) If a cause is non-existent, there will be no power in it that can produce something. (B) If the power is admitted to be existent, the locus of such power has to be existent too. There can be no existent power in a non-existent locus. (C) The power cannot be non-existent and yet be admitted to be able to produce something. The final conclusion is: an existent object alone can be the cause.

Verse 44

शक्तिः सदसती सा चेद्दोषद्वयसमागमः ।
अतः स्वशक्त्या चासत्तु सर्वेषां नैव कारणम् ॥ ४४॥

शक्तिः power सदसती existent-non-existent सा that चेत् if (admitted) दोषद्वयसमागमः fraught with two defects अतः hence स्वशक्त्या by its own power च too असत् non-existence तु however सर्वेषां of all न एव never कारणम् cause

The third alternative (c) stated above under verse 41 – the creative power is both existent and non-existent – is now rejected, with reasons: the defects shown under both the alternatives (1) and (2) under verses 42, 43 and 44 will apply to this as well. That is, if the cause is held to be non-existent, asat, then the cases of its having the power to be sat, existent as well as asat, non-existent, will apply to this case (3) too. In (1) the defect is: an existent power cannot inhere in a non-existent locus and in (2) the defect is: a non-existent power cannot inhere in a non-existent locus; it (such a non-existent power) cannot produce anything. A locus that is non-existent is simply impossible. Such an entity can never be the cause of anything. No one will admit such an entity to be the cause of the world. Therefore it must, per force, be admitted that Brahman, the Sat, by its own power, is the cause of the world.

Verse 45

तस्मात्सोऽयमसद्वादो जल्पमात्रं न युक्तिमान् ।
अतः सदेव सर्वेषां कारणं नासदास्तिकाः ॥ ४५॥

तस्मात् therefore सः that अयम् this असद्वादः non-existence doctrine जल्पमात्रं is mere prattle न not युक्तिमान् reasonable अतः hence सत् Existence एव alone सर्वेषां of all कारणं cause न not असत् non-existence आस्तिकाः O, Believers!!

The Śruti teaching alone is now being upheld, after the discussion involving the refutation of the doctrine of non-existence: कुतस्तु खलु सोम्यैवं स्यादिति होवाच कथमसतः सज्जायेतेति (“But how, indeed, could it be thus, my dear? How could Being be born from non-existence?’) (Chā.up.6.2.2). The word ‘tu’ in the passage is the one that refutes the wrong doctrine. The doctrine of satkārāṇa, ‘existence alone is the cause’ is emphatically stated so that the aspirants do not get deluded by the wrong doctrines and correctly understand the true vedic teaching: सदेव सोमेदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयम् । (‘All this before manifestation, was Sat, Existence, One only without a second, alone ’) (Chā.up.6.2.1). Since the doctrine of ‘non-existence is the cause’ has no grounding on reason, it is rejected. By refuting that doctrine in the foregoing, the satkāraṇavāda has been established on strong reason. Sat, Existence, alone can be the cause of the creation. It is this Sat alone that is experienced by all as the existence in all worldly objects and events. Perceptions such as ‘the house is, the cow is, etc.’ have the ‘is’-ness representing the Ultimate Existence, the IS.

Verse 46

सृष्टेस्तु प्रागिदं सर्वं सदेवाऽऽसीत्तु कारणम् ।
तच्च कारणमाद्यन्तविनिर्मुक्तं सदद्वयम् ॥ ४६॥

सृष्टेः तु प्राक् prior to creation, however, इदं सर्वं all this सत् existence एव alone आसीत् was तु indeed कारणम् cause तत् that च however कारणम् cause आद्यन्तविनिर्मुक्तं devoid of beginning and end सत् Sat, Existence अद्वयम् non-dual

Having affirmed that ‘by knowing the One, everything stands known’, the Chāndogyya Śruti advanced three analogies – clay and clay-products, gold and gold-products and iron and iron-products to demonstrate the claim: ekavijñānena sarvavijñānam’. Thereby the Śruti established the non-difference of the effect from the cause. To the question ‘which is that entity the knowledge of which results in the knowing of all?’ the Śruti replied ‘It is that alone, the Sat, Existence, before creation that all this (now manifest and perceived world) was before manifestation.’ This is none else than the Existence, Non-dual, Brahman. There is no second of any kind for It. There is no ‘another’ Brahman, there is nothing other than Brahman and there are no internal divisions in Brahman. Only if the world is admitted to be the effect, kāryam, of Brahman, will the claim that ‘by knowing which everything is known’ be valid. Only if Brahman, the cause, is known, the effect, the world, becomes completely, truly, known. It is this knowledge that is the liberating one. One realizes that there is nothing apart from Brahman, the fundamental cause. In order to show that the world has emanated from Brahman, the Chāndogya śruti 6.2.3 says: तदैक्षत बहु स्यां प्रजायेयेति (‘It deliberated: Let me become many, be born excessively’).

The essential nature of that Cause, Brahman, is that It is free of beginning and end. In other words, Brahman has no cause that has brought It forth. It does not really have any effect. If the effect were to be admitted to be real, then the defect of the cause undergoing transformation and thereby being subject to destruction cannot be avoided.

Part 1, Part 5, Part 8 Coming Soon…

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